Annals of Military and Health Sciences Research

Published by: Kowsar

Assessment of Oral Shedding of Herpes Simplex Virus Before and After Endodontic and Fixed Partial Prosthodontics Treatment in Patients with Recurrent Herpes Simplex

Maryam Koopaie 1 , * , Faezeh Esmaily 2 and Mohammad Javad Kharazifard 2 , 1
Authors Information
1 School of Dentistry, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran
2 Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, Faculty of Public Health, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran
Article information
  • Annals of Military and Health Sciences Research: June 2018, 16 (2); e82601
  • Published Online: September 8, 2018
  • Article Type: Research Article
  • Received: July 25, 2018
  • Revised: September 2, 2018
  • Accepted: September 3, 2018
  • DOI: 10.5812/amh.82601

To Cite: Koopaie M, Esmaily F, Kharazifard M J . Assessment of Oral Shedding of Herpes Simplex Virus Before and After Endodontic and Fixed Partial Prosthodontics Treatment in Patients with Recurrent Herpes Simplex, Ann Mil Health Sci Res. 2018 ; 16(2):e82601. doi: 10.5812/amh.82601.

Copyright © 2018, Annals of Military and Health Sciences Research. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License ( which permits copy and redistribute the material just in noncommercial usages, provided the original work is properly cited.
1. Background
2. Methods
3. Results
4. Discussion
  • 1. Carratala J, Montejo M, Perez-Romero P. Infections caused by herpes viruses other than cytomegalovirus in solid organ transplant recipients. Enferm Infecc Microbiol Clin. 2012;30 Suppl 2:63-9. doi: 10.1016/S0213-005X(12)70084-8. [PubMed: 22542037].
  • 2. El Hayderi L, Delvenne P, Rompen E, Senterre JM, Nikkels AF. Herpes simplex virus reactivation and dental procedures. Clin Oral Investig. 2013;17(8):1961-4. doi: 10.1007/s00784-013-0986-3. [PubMed: 23604785].
  • 3. Smith CA, Conroy LT, Pollock M, Ruddy J, Binning A, McCruden EA. Detection of herpes viruses in respiratory secretions of patients undergoing artificial ventilation. J Med Virol. 2010;82(8):1406-9. doi: 10.1002/jmv.21794. [PubMed: 20572072].
  • 4. Looker KJ, Magaret AS, May MT, Turner KM, Vickerman P, Gottlieb SL, et al. Global and regional estimates of prevalent and incident herpes simplex virus type 1 infections in 2012. PLoS One. 2015;10(10). e0140765. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0140765. [PubMed: 26510007]. [PubMed Central: PMC4624804].
  • 5. Gottlieb SL, Giersing BK, Hickling J, Jones R, Deal C, Kaslow DC, et al. Meeting report: Initial World Health Organization consultation on herpes simplex virus (HSV) vaccine preferred product characteristics, March 2017. Vaccine. 2017. doi: 10.1016/j.vaccine.2017.10.084. [PubMed: 29224963].
  • 6. Stoopler ET, Balasubramaniam R. Topical and systemic therapies for oral and perioral herpes simplex virus infections. J Calif Dent Assoc. 2013;41(4):259-62. [PubMed: 23705241].
  • 7. Tovaru S, Parlatescu I, Tovaru M, Cionca L, Arduino PG. Recurrent intraoral HSV-1 infection: A retrospective study of 58 immunocompetent patients from Eastern Europe. Med Oral Patol Oral Cir Bucal. 2011;16(2):e163-9. [PubMed: 20711124].
  • 8. Burket LW, Greenberg MS, Glick M. Burket's oral medicine: Diagnosis and treatment. PMPH-USA; 2003.
  • 9. Regezi JA, Sciubba JJ, Jordan RCK. Oral pathology: Clinical pathologic correlations. illustrated ed. Elsevier; 2016.
  • 10. Kennedy PG, Rovnak J, Badani H, Cohrs RJ. A comparison of herpes simplex virus type 1 and varicella-zoster virus latency and reactivation. J Gen Virol. 2015;96(Pt 7):1581-602. doi: 10.1099/vir.0.000128. [PubMed: 25794504]. [PubMed Central: PMC4635449].
  • 11. Whitley RJ. Herpes simplex virus infections of the central nervous system. In: Peterson P, Toborek M, editors. Neuroinflammation and Neurodegeneration. New York, NY: Springer; 2014. p. 263-90.
  • 12. Agelidis AM, Shukla D. Cell entry mechanisms of HSV: what we have learned in recent years. Future Virol. 2015;10(10):1145-54. doi: 10.2217/fvl.15.85. [PubMed: 27066105]. [PubMed Central: PMC4822157].
  • 13. Horowitz R, Aierstuck S, Williams EA, Melby B. Herpes simplex virus infection in a university health population: clinical manifestations, epidemiology, and implications. J Am Coll Health. 2010;59(2):69-74. doi: 10.1080/07448481.2010.483711. [PubMed: 20864431].
  • 14. Ramchandani M, Kong M, Tronstein E, Selke S, Mikhaylova A, Magaret A, et al. Herpes simplex virus type 1 shedding in tears and nasal and oral mucosa of healthy adults. Sex Transm Dis. 2016;43(12):756-60. doi: 10.1097/OLQ.0000000000000522. [PubMed: 27835628]. [PubMed Central: PMC5117635].
  • 15. Arduino PG, Porter SR. Herpes simplex virus type 1 infection: overview on relevant clinico-pathological features. J Oral Pathol Med. 2008;37(2):107-21. doi: 10.1111/j.1600-0714.2007.00586.x. [PubMed: 18197856].
  • 16. McGeoch DJ, Bowden RJ. Evolution of herpes simplex viruses. Herpes simplex viruses. CRC Press; 2017. p. 1-34.
  • 17. Szpara ML, Gatherer D, Ochoa A, Greenbaum B, Dolan A, Bowden RJ, et al. Evolution and diversity in human herpes simplex virus genomes. J Virol. 2014;88(2):1209-27. doi: 10.1128/JVI.01987-13. [PubMed: 24227835]. [PubMed Central: PMC3911644].
  • 18. Simon E, Matee M. Post-extraction complications seen at a referral dental clinic in Dar Es Salaam, Tanzania. Int Dent J. 2001;51(4):273-6. [PubMed: 11570541].
  • 19. Arduino PG, Porter SR. Oral and perioral herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) infection: review of its management. Oral Dis. 2006;12(3):254-70. doi: 10.1111/j.1601-0825.2006.01202.x. [PubMed: 16700734].
  • 20. Hyland PL, Coulter WA, Abu-Ruman I, Fulton CR, O'Neill HJ, Coyle PV, et al. Asymptomatic shedding of HSV-1 in patients undergoing oral surgical procedures and attending for noninvasive treatment. Oral Dis. 2007;13(4):414-8. doi: 10.1111/j.1601-0825.2007.01316.x. [PubMed: 17577329].
  • 21. Fatahzadeh M, Schwartz RA. Human herpes simplex virus infections: epidemiology, pathogenesis, symptomatology, diagnosis, and management. J Am Acad Dermatol. 2007;57(5):737-63. quiz 764-6. doi: 10.1016/j.jaad.2007.06.027. [PubMed: 17939933].
  • 22. Tsai J, Cohrs RJ, Nagel MA, Mahalingam R, Schmid DS, Choe A, et al. Reactivation of type 1 herpes simplex virus and varicella zoster virus in an immunosuppressed patient with acute peripheral facial weakness. J Neurol Sci. 2012;313(1-2):193-5. doi: 10.1016/j.jns.2011.08.040. [PubMed: 21924743]. [PubMed Central: PMC3243805].
  • 23. Kucera P, Gerber S, Marques-Vidal P, Meylan PR. Seroepidemiology of herpes simplex virus type 1 and 2 in pregnant women in Switzerland: an obstetric clinic based study. Eur J Obstet Gynecol Reprod Biol. 2012;160(1):13-7. doi: 10.1016/j.ejogrb.2011.09.030. [PubMed: 21982938].
  • 24. Wu YP, Sun DD, Wang Y, Liu W, Yang J. Herpes simplex virus type 1 and type 2 infection increases atherosclerosis risk: Evidence based on a meta-analysis. Biomed Res Int. 2016;2016:2630865. doi: 10.1155/2016/2630865. [PubMed: 27195284]. [PubMed Central: PMC4853930].
  • 25. Campadelli-Fiume G, De Giovanni C, Gatta V, Nanni P, Lollini PL, Menotti L. Rethinking herpes simplex virus: the way to oncolytic agents. Rev Med Virol. 2011;21(4):213-26. doi: 10.1002/rmv.691. [PubMed: 21626603].
  • 26. Westley S, Seymour R, Staines K. Recurrent intra-oral herpes simplex 1 infection. Dent Update. 2011;38(6):368-70. 372-4. doi: 10.12968/denu.2011.38.6.368. [PubMed: 21905349].
  • 27. Tateishi K, Toh Y, Minagawa H, Tashiro H. Detection of herpes simplex virus (HSV) in the saliva from 1,000 oral surgery outpatients by the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and virus isolation. J Oral Pathol Med. 1994;23(2):80-4. [PubMed: 8164158].
  • 28. Sacks SL. Famciclovir suppression of asymptomatic and symptomatic recurrent anogenital herpes simplex virus shedding in women: a randomized, double-blind, double-dummy, placebo-controlled, parallel-group, single-center trial. J Infect Dis. 2004;189(8):1341-7. doi: 10.1086/383038. [PubMed: 15073669].
  • 29. da Silva LM, Guimaraes AL, Victoria JM, Gomes CC, Gomez RS. Herpes simplex virus type 1 shedding in the oral cavity of seropositive patients. Oral Dis. 2005;11(1):13-6. doi: 10.1111/j.1601-0825.2004.01058.x. [PubMed: 15641961].
  • 30. Kaufman HE, Azcuy AM, Varnell ED, Sloop GD, Thompson HW, Hill JM. HSV-1 DNA in tears and saliva of normal adults. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2005;46(1):241-7. doi: 10.1167/iovs.04-0614. [PubMed: 15623779]. [PubMed Central: PMC1200985].
  • 31. Gitman MR, Ferguson D, Landry ML. Comparison of Simplexa HSV 1 & 2 PCR with culture, immunofluorescence, and laboratory-developed TaqMan PCR for detection of herpes simplex virus in swab specimens. J Clin Microbiol. 2013;51(11):3765-9. doi: 10.1128/JCM.01413-13. [PubMed: 24006008]. [PubMed Central: PMC3889765].
  • 32. Miller CS, Avdiushko SA, Kryscio RJ, Danaher RJ, Jacob RJ. Effect of prophylactic valacyclovir on the presence of human herpesvirus DNA in saliva of healthy individuals after dental treatment. J Clin Microbiol. 2005;43(5):2173-80. doi: 10.1128/JCM.43.5.2173-2180.2005. [PubMed: 15872238]. [PubMed Central: PMC1153765].
  • 33. Miller CS, Danaher RJ. Asymptomatic shedding of herpes simplex virus (HSV) in the oral cavity. Oral Surg Oral Med Oral Pathol Oral Radiol Endod. 2008;105(1):43-50. doi: 10.1016/j.tripleo.2007.06.011. [PubMed: 17703961].
  • 34. Browning WD, McCarthy JP. A case series: herpes simplex virus as an occupational hazard. J Esthet Restor Dent. 2012;24(1):61-6. doi: 10.1111/j.1708-8240.2011.00469.x. [PubMed: 22296698]. [PubMed Central: PMC3437498].
  • 35. Tsatsos M, MacGregor C, Athanasiadis I, Moschos MM, Hossain P, Anderson D. Herpes simplex virus keratitis: an update of the pathogenesis and current treatment with oral and topical antiviral agents. Clin Exp Ophthalmol. 2016;44(9):824-37. doi: 10.1111/ceo.12785. [PubMed: 27273328].
  • 36. Klein RS. Prevention of herpes simplex virus type 1 infection in immunocompetent patients. Up To Date, Inc; 2016.
  • 37. El Hayderi L, Raty L, Failla V, Caucanas M, Paurobally D, Nikkels AF. Severe herpes simplex virus type-I infections after dental procedures. Med Oral Patol Oral Cir Bucal. 2011;16(1):e15-8. [PubMed: 20526251].
  • 38. De Santana Sarmento DJ, Tozetto-Mendoza TR, Masami Sumita L, Pierroti LC, Pallos D, Caliento R, et al. Oral shedding of human herpesviruses in renal transplant recipients. Clin Oral Investig. 2018;22(2):885-91. doi: 10.1007/s00784-017-2166-3. [PubMed: 28669106].
  • 39. Caliento R, Sarmento DJS, Silva EMP, Tozetto-Mendoza TR, Tobouti PL, Benini V, et al. Oral shedding of HSV-1 and EBV and oral manifestations in paediatric chronic kidney disease patients and renal transplant recipients. Acta Odontol Scand. 2018:1-6. doi: 10.1080/00016357.2018.1437218. [PubMed: 29409366].
  • 40. Marques-Silva L, Castro WH, Gomez EL, Guimaraes AL, Silva MS, Gomez RS. The impact of dental surgery on HSV-1 reactivation in the oral mucosa of seropositive patients. J Oral Maxillofac Surg. 2007;65(11):2269-72. doi: 10.1016/j.joms.2007.05.029. [PubMed: 17954324].
  • 41. Gaudin RA, Remenschneider AK, Phillips K, Knipfer C, Smeets R, Heiland M, et al. Facial palsy after dental procedures - Is viral reactivation responsible? J Craniomaxillofac Surg. 2017;45(1):71-5. doi: 10.1016/j.jcms.2016.11.002. [PubMed: 27939042].
  • 42. Sainz B, Loutsch JM, Marquart ME, Hill JM. Stress-associated immunomodulation and herpes simplex virus infections. Med Hypotheses. 2001;56(3):348-56. doi: 10.1054/mehy.2000.1219. [PubMed: 11359358].
  • 43. Ives AM, Bertke AS. Stress Hormones Epinephrine and Corticosterone Selectively Modulate Herpes Simplex Virus 1 (HSV-1) and HSV-2 Productive Infections in Adult Sympathetic, but Not Sensory, Neurons. J Virol. 2017;91(13). doi: 10.1128/JVI.00582-17. [PubMed: 28404850]. [PubMed Central: PMC5469259].
Creative Commons License Except where otherwise noted, this work is licensed under Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial 4.0 International License .

Search Relations:



Create Citiation Alert
via Google Reader

Readers' Comments