Annals of Military and Health Sciences Research

Published by: Kowsar

Non-Carcinogenic Risk Assessment of Heavy Metals Through Exposure to the Household Dust (Case Study: City of Khorramabad, Iran)

Soheil Sobhanardakani 1 , *
Author Information
1 Department of the Environment, College of Basic Sciences, Hamedan Branch, Islamic Azad University, Hamedan, Iran
Article information
  • Annals of Military and Health Sciences Research: 16 (4); e86594
  • Published Online: January 1, 2019
  • Article Type: Research Article
  • Received: November 20, 2018
  • Revised: December 18, 2018
  • Accepted: December 23, 2018
  • DOI: 10.5812/amh.86594

To Cite: Sobhanardakani S . Non-Carcinogenic Risk Assessment of Heavy Metals Through Exposure to the Household Dust (Case Study: City of Khorramabad, Iran), Ann Mil Health Sci Res. Online ahead of Print ; 16(4):e86594. doi: 10.5812/amh.86594.

Copyright © 2019, Annals of Military and Health Sciences Research. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License ( which permits copy and redistribute the material just in noncommercial usages, provided the original work is properly cited.
1. Background
2. Objectives
3. Methods
4. Results
5. Discussion
  • 1. Duzgoren-Aydin NS, Wong CS, Aydin A, Song Z, You M, Li XD. Heavy metal contamination and distribution in the urban environment of Guangzhou, SE China. Environ Geochem Health. 2006;28(4):375-91. doi: 10.1007/s10653-005-9036-7. [PubMed: 16752128].
  • 2. Huang M, Wang W, Chan CY, Cheung KC, Man YB, Wang X, et al. Contamination and risk assessment (based on bioaccessibility via ingestion and inhalation) of metal(loid)s in outdoor and indoor particles from urban centers of Guangzhou, China. Sci Total Environ. 2014;479-480:117-24. doi: 10.1016/j.scitotenv.2014.01.115. [PubMed: 24561290].
  • 3. Rasmussen PE, Subramanian KS, Jessiman BJ. A multi-element profile of housedust in relation to exterior dust and soils in the city of Ottawa, Canada. Sci Total Environ. 2001;267(1-3):125-40. doi: 10.1016/S0048-9697(00)00775-0. [PubMed: 11286208].
  • 4. Chattopadhyay G, Lin KC, Feitz AJ. Household dust metal levels in the Sydney metropolitan area. Environ Res. 2003;93(3):301-7. doi: 10.1016/S0013-9351(03)00058-6. [PubMed: 14615241].
  • 5. Hogervorst J, Plusquin M, Vangronsveld J, Nawrot T, Cuypers A, Van Hecke E, et al. House dust as possible route of environmental exposure to cadmium and lead in the adult general population. Environ Res. 2007;103(1):30-7. doi: 10.1016/j.envres.2006.05.009. [PubMed: 16843453].
  • 6. Christoforidis A, Stamatis N. Heavy metal contamination in street dust and roadside soil along the major national road in Kavala's region, Greece. Geoderma. 2009;151(3-4):257-63. doi: 10.1016/j.geoderma.2009.04.016.
  • 7. Lu X, Wang L, Li LY, Lei K, Huang L, Kang D. Multivariate statistical analysis of heavy metals in street dust of Baoji, NW China. J Hazard Mater. 2010;173(1-3):744-9. doi: 10.1016/j.jhazmat.2009.09.001. [PubMed: 19811870].
  • 8. Shi G, Chen Z, Bi C, Wang L, Teng J, Li Y, et al. A comparative study of health risk of potentially toxic metals in urban and suburban road dust in the most populated city of China. Atmos Environ. 2011;45(3):764-71. doi: 10.1016/j.atmosenv.2010.08.039.
  • 9. Han Z, Bi X, Li Z, Yang W, Wang L, Yang H, et al. Occurrence, speciation and bioaccessibility of lead in Chinese rural household dust and the associated health risk to children. Atmos Environ. 2012;46:65-70. doi: 10.1016/j.atmosenv.2011.10.025.
  • 10. Li H, Qian X, Hu W, Wang Y, Gao H. Chemical speciation and human health risk of trace metals in urban street dusts from a metropolitan city, Nanjing, SE China. Sci Total Environ. 2013;456-457:212-21. doi: 10.1016/j.scitotenv.2013.03.094. [PubMed: 23602974].
  • 11. Chen H, Lu X, Li LY. Spatial distribution and risk assessment of metals in dust based on samples from nursery and primary schools of Xi'an, China. Atmos Environ. 2014;88:172-82. doi: 10.1016/j.atmosenv.2014.01.054.
  • 12. Yoshinaga J, Yamasaki K, Yonemura A, Ishibashi Y, Kaido T, Mizuno K, et al. Lead and other elements in house dust of Japanese residences – Source of lead and health risks due to metal exposure. Environ Pollut. 2014;189:223-8. doi: 10.1016/j.envpol.2014.03.003.
  • 13. Lin Y, Fang F, Wang F, Xu M. Pollution distribution and health risk assessment of heavy metals in indoor dust in Anhui rural, China. Environ Monit Assess. 2015;187(9):565. doi: 10.1007/s10661-015-4763-4. [PubMed: 26260049].
  • 14. Wan D, Han Z, Liu D, Yang J. Risk assessments of heavy metals in house dust from a typical industrial area in Central China. Hum Ecol Risk Assess. 2015;22(2):489-501. doi: 10.1080/10807039.2015.1080593.
  • 15. Iwegbue CMA, Oliseyenum EC, Martincigh BS. Spatio-temporal distribution of metals in household dust from rural, semi-urban and urban environments in the Niger Delta, Nigeria. Environ Sci Pollut Res Int. 2017;24(16):14040-59. doi: 10.1007/s11356-017-8609-1. [PubMed: 28409430].
  • 16. Sobhanardakani S. Ecological and human health risk assessment of heavy metal content of atmospheric dry deposition, a case study: Kermanshah, Iran. Biol Trace Elem Res. 2018. doi: 10.1007/s12011-018-1383-1. [PubMed: 29754285].
  • 17. Hosseini SV, Sobhanardakani S, Miandare HK, Harsij M, Regenstein JM. Determination of toxic (Pb, Cd) and essential (Zn, Mn) metals in canned tuna fish produced in Iran. J Environ Health Sci Eng. 2015;13:59. doi: 10.1186/s40201-015-0215-x. [PubMed: 26266037]. [PubMed Central: PMC4531440].
  • 18. Sobhanardakani S. Tuna fish and common kilka: Health risk assessment of metal pollution through consumption of canned fish in Iran. J Consum Prot Food Safety. 2017;12(2):157-63. doi: 10.1007/s00003-017-1107-z.
  • 19. Kabata-Pendias A. Trace elements in soils and plants. Fourth ed. Florida, USA: CRC Press; 2010. p. 231-3. doi: 10.1201/b10158.
  • 20. Hosseini SV, Sobhanardakani S, Tahergorabi R, Delfieh P. Selected heavy metals analysis of Persian sturgeon's (Acipenser persicus) caviar from Southern Caspian Sea. Biol Trace Elem Res. 2013;154(3):357-62. doi: 10.1007/s12011-013-9740-6. [PubMed: 23824563].
  • 21. Duran A, Tuzen M, Soylak M. Trace metal contents in chewing gums and candies marketed in Turkey. Environ Monit Assess. 2009;149(1-4):283-9. doi: 10.1007/s10661-008-0202-0. [PubMed: 18253850].
  • 22. Hariri E, Abboud MI, Demirdjian S, Korfali S, Mroueh M, Taleb RI. Carcinogenic and neurotoxic risks of acrylamide and heavy metals from potato and corn chips consumed by the Lebanese population. J Food Compos Anal. 2015;42:91-7. doi: 10.1016/j.jfca.2015.03.009.
  • 23. Sobhanardakani S. Analysis of contamination levels of Cu, Pb, and Zn and population health risk via consumption of processed meat products. Jundishapur J Health Sci. 2018;10(1). e14059. doi: 10.5812/jjhs.14059.
  • 24. Sobhanardakani S, Tayebi L, Hosseini SV. Health risk assessment of arsenic and heavy metals (Cd, Cu, Co, Pb, and Sn) through consumption of caviar of Acipenser persicus from Southern Caspian Sea. Environ Sci Pollut Res Int. 2018;25(3):2664-71. doi: 10.1007/s11356-017-0705-8. [PubMed: 29134524].
  • 25. Hosseini SV, Aflaki F, Sobhanardakani S, Bandehkhoda Langaroudi S. Selected metals in canned fish consumed in Iran. Iran J Toxicol. 2015;8(27):1182-7.
  • 26. Maertens RM, Bailey J, White PA. The mutagenic hazards of settled house dust: A review. Mutat Res. 2004;567(2-3):401-25. doi: 10.1016/j.mrrev.2004.08.004. [PubMed: 15572288].
  • 27. Verougstraete V, Lison D, Hotz P. Cadmium, lung and prostate cancer: A systematic review of recent epidemiological data. J Toxicol Environ Health B Crit Rev. 2003;6(3):227-55. doi: 10.1080/10937400306465. [PubMed: 12746140].
  • 28. Sabzevari E, Sobhanardakani S. Analysis of selected heavy metals in indoor dust in Khorramabad city, Iran: A case study. Jundishapur J Health Sci. 2018;In Press(In Press). doi: 10.5812/jjhs.67382.
  • 29. Yongming H, Peixuan D, Junji C, Posmentier ES. Multivariate analysis of heavy metal contamination in urban dusts of Xi'an, Central China. Sci Total Environ. 2006;355(1-3):176-86. doi: 10.1016/j.scitotenv.2005.02.026. [PubMed: 15885748].
  • 30. Zheng M, Guo Z, Fang M, Rahn KA, Kester DR. Dry and wet deposition of elements in Hong Kong. Mar Chem. 2005;97(1-2):124-39. doi: 10.1016/j.marchem.2005.05.007.
  • 31. Xu X, Lu X, Han X, Zhao N. Ecological and health risk assessment of metal in resuspended particles of urban street dust from an industrial city in China. Curr Sci. 2015;108(1):72-9.
  • 32. Ferreira-Baptista L, De Miguel E. Geochemistry and risk assessment of street dust in Luanda, Angola: A tropical urban environment. Atmos Environ. 2005;39(25):4501-12. doi: 10.1016/j.atmosenv.2005.03.026.
  • 33. Li X, Zhang S, Yang M. Accumulation and risk assessment of heavy metals in dust in main living areas of Guiyang city, Southwest China. Chin J Geochem. 2014;33(3):272-6. doi: 10.1007/s11631-014-0687-x.
  • 34. Zheng N, Liu J, Wang Q, Liang Z. Health risk assessment of heavy metal exposure to street dust in the zinc smelting district, Northeast of China. Sci Total Environ. 2010;408(4):726-33. doi: 10.1016/j.scitotenv.2009.10.075. [PubMed: 19926116].
  • 35. Luo XS, Ding J, Xu B, Wang YJ, Li HB, Yu S. Incorporating bioaccessibility into human health risk assessments of heavy metals in urban park soils. Sci Total Environ. 2012;424:88-96. doi: 10.1016/j.scitotenv.2012.02.053. [PubMed: 22444057].
  • 36. Man YB, Sun XL, Zhao YG, Lopez BN, Chung SS, Wu SC, et al. Health risk assessment of abandoned agricultural soils based on heavy metal contents in Hong Kong, the world's most populated city. Environ Int. 2010;36(6):570-6. doi: 10.1016/j.envint.2010.04.014. [PubMed: 20552725].
  • 37. Barrio-Parra F, De Miguel E, Lázaro-Navas S, Gómez A, Izquierdo M. Indoor dust metal loadings: A human health risk assessment. Expo Health. 2017;10(1):41-50. doi: 10.1007/s12403-017-0244-z.
  • 38. Ardashiri S, Hashemi SE. Health risk assessment of heavy metals in indoor dust from Bushehr, Iran. Iran J Health Safety Environ. 2018;5(2):966-71.
  • 39. Kong S, Lu B, Ji Y, Zhao X, Chen L, Li Z, et al. Levels, risk assessment and sources of PM10 fraction heavy metals in four types dust from a coal-based city. Microchem J. 2011;98(2):280-90.
  • 40. Ghafari HR, Sobhanardakani S. Contamination and health risks from heavy metals (Cd and Pb) and trace elements (Cu and Zn) in dairy products. Iran J Health Sci. 2017;5(3):49-57. doi: 10.29252/jhs.5.3.49.
  • 41. McKenzie ER, Money JE, Green PG, Young TM. Metals associated with stormwater-relevant brake and tire samples. Sci Total Environ. 2009;407(22):5855-60. doi: 10.1016/j.scitotenv.2009.07.018. [PubMed: 19709720]. [PubMed Central: PMC2776691].
  • 42. Jones EA, Wright JM, Rice G, Buckley BT, Magsumbol MS, Barr DB, et al. Metal exposures in an inner-city neonatal population. Environ Int. 2010;36(7):649-54. doi: 10.1016/j.envint.2010.04.007. [PubMed: 20553999].
  • 43. Caravanos J, Weiss AL, Blaise MJ, Jaeger RJ. A survey of spatially distributed exterior dust lead loadings in New York City. Environ Res. 2006;100(2):165-72. doi: 10.1016/j.envres.2005.05.001. [PubMed: 16005864].
  • 44. Chen X, Lu X, Li LY, Yang G. Spatial distribution and contamination assessment of heavy metals in urban topsoil from inside the Xi’an second ringroad, NW China. Environ Earth Sci. 2012;68(7):1979-88. doi: 10.1007/s12665-012-1885-7.
  • 45. Williams PN, Lei M, Sun G, Huang Q, Lu Y, Deacon C, et al. Occurrence and partitioning of cadmium, arsenic and lead in mine impacted paddy rice: Hunan, China. Environ Sci Technol. 2009;43(3):637-42. doi: 10.1021/es802412r. [PubMed: 19244995].
  • 46. Das KK, Das SN, Dhundasi SA. Nickel, its adverse health effects & oxidative stress. Indian J Med Res. 2008;128(4):412-25. [PubMed: 19106437].
  • 47. Sobhanardakani S, Zandipak R. Adsorption of Ni (II) and Cd (II) from aqueous solutions using modified rice husk. Iran J Health Sci. 2015;3(1):1-9.
  • 48. Sobhanardakani S, Mohammadi-Roozbahani M, Sorooshnia R, Karimi H. Assessment of heavy metal contamination in surface soils of Ahvaz IV industrial Estate, Khuzestan province, Iran. Iran J Health Sci. 2016;4(1):53-61. doi: 10.18869/acadpub.jhs.4.1.53.
  • 49. Al-Khashman OA. Heavy metal distribution in dust, street dust and soils from the work place in Karak industrial Estate, Jordan. Atmos Environ. 2004;38(39):6803-12. doi: 10.1016/j.atmosenv.2004.09.011.

Featured Image:

Creative Commons License Except where otherwise noted, this work is licensed under Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial 4.0 International License .
Readers' Comments